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attentional bias studies

The presence of attentional bias in test anxiety appears theoretically plausible with some empirical support (e.g. Affective change is a change in affect from its present state; it is the essence of what people are motivated to achieve. In both cases, differences in the amount of relative activation between the left/right hemispheres (Kinsbourne, 1970) or ventral/dorsal (Drain & Reuter-Lorenz, 1996) streams are thought to give rise to a bias of attention toward one side of space. Feast your eyes: hunger and trait reward drive predict attentional bias for food cues. A process that takes place after a stimulus that initially had no reward value is repeatedly paired with the onset of a reward. When one memory or node was activated, it would in turn activate any nodes to which it was connected or associated. The attentional bias is the tendency of certain salient cues in a person's environment to preferentially draw and/or hold the person's attention. Heuristics are mental shortcuts that can facilitate problem-solving and probability judgments. The ability to visualize locations in space in varying degrees of detail. This chapter focuses on attentional bias (AB) for smoking-related cues, which applies models and paradigms from cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Emotion, 10(6), pp. Another reaction-time task, the dot-probe procedure, may also be considered a proxy measure of craving. Our environment has changed profoundly: for most people, food is available in abundance, and we no longer have to worry about guarding the village from sabertooth tigers. To apply this in the real world, if there is a specific type of attentional bias one is looking to avoid, it might help to enlist a friend or family member who can point out moments you fall into biased thinking, and offer reminders to zoom out. To work towards this goal, you resolve to buy fewer desserts when you go grocery shopping. One method that has been used to study attentional biases is known as the Stroop test. Attention bias modification training (ABMT: repeated training to attend to specific target stimuli and ignore others) may help investigators to study such causal influences of attention on optimism because it promises to modify attention (bias) and affect emotions (MacLeod and Mathews, 2012). Materials and methods. The opposite bias, of not attributing feelings or thoughts to another person, is dehumanised perception, a type of objectification. Attentional bias: Availability bias: The tendency of perception to be affected by recurring thoughts. Additionally, all the words were grouped according to their emotional value: neutral (e.g. It is located at the anterior part of the brain just above where the eyes would be found. Perhaps attentional bias must remain focused on drug stimuli for at least several seconds for craving to be elicited or intensified, or perhaps only when craving is of sufficient intensity might it result in scanning the environment for and attentional bias to drug-related cues. Similarly, if panic patients inhaling CO2 are led to believe that they can manipulate the CO2 saturation in the inhaled air by pressing a panic button, this induced sense of illusory control protects them from panic attacks and decreases their self-rated anxiety. Therefore, investigating mechanisms that … Our brains rely on many shortcuts and rules of thumb to speed up processing and help us navigate the world. Springer, Cham. This refers to methods for decreasing attentional bias to relevant cues. Similarly, attentional biases can be affected by the presentation of spatial cues for both horizontal (Nicholls & Roberts, 2002) and vertical (Drain & Reuter-Lorenz, 1996) stimuli. Motivation starts when a person is aware of incentives that he or she finds attractive. Research even suggests that selective attentional bias in conservatives and liberals might contribute to differences in political beliefs. Other times, a bias toward emotional information might cause us to make decisions without more objective sources of data. One important example is our bias to focus on food. Potenza, in The Neuroscience of Cocaine, 2017. In: Zeigler-Hill V., Shackelford T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. For example, cigarette smokers have been shown to possess an attentional bias for smoking-related cues around them, due to their brain's altered reward sensitivity. Mark Williams recounted the cases of a bird phobic who was unable to walk down her high street in case the butcher’s shop there had a display of poultry in the window, and of a welder who obsessively scanned through newspapers looking for reports of disasters. Response asymmetry is measured in terms of response bias. On Stuvia you will find the most extensive lecture summaries written by your fellow students. Although they can be derived after just one stimulus response is recorded, they are usually created by averaging all stimulus presentations of a given type together within single subjects and then across an entire sample. “tree”), positive (e.g. Despite the fact the leftward horizontal and upward attentional biases combine to produce an extra strong bias toward the upper/left quadrant, the biases themselves appear to be independent. However, what information we pay attention to and remember is subject to bias. The results showed that liberals were biased to focus on words with emotionally positive content, while conservatives focused more on the negative.19 This may indicate that our differences in beliefs may stem from very basic attentional processes, automatically filtering out separate kinds of information and orienting us towards different sets of data. As can be seen, researching attentional bias is non-trivial as a distinction must be made between the three components. In any case when a person has a goal of drinking alcohol, the person selectively attends to stimuli in the environment that are related to procuring and imbibing alcohol. The Stroop test measures how long it takes a participant to name the color of a word on a card. In experiments, participants are shown words that are either emotionally negative or emotionally neutral. Other times, our attention can be biased by cognitive schemas that we have acquired over the course of our lives. As can be seen, there is a shift of attention toward the upper/left quadrant. Also known as current moment bias, present-bias, and related to Dynamic inconsistency. Field, M., & Cox, W. (2008). What are the factors that determine the value of using these substances? (2004) examined the correlation between an individual’s attentional bias along the horizontal axis with their bias along the vertical axis. For example, Gotlib and McCann (1984) found that depressed participants were slower to name the colors of negative words; in Mathews and MacLeod (1985), anxious patients were slower for threatening words, particularly words that were related to an individual’s particular fears; and Watts et al. As the available studies differ in many respects, conclusions can only be drawn with caution. In our personal and professional lives, attentional bias can give us tunnel vision, overemphasizing some factors and blinding us to others. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine group and individual differences in attentional bias toward and away from socially threatening facial stimuli among adolescents who stutter and age- and sex-matched typically fluent controls. Sociocultural and environmental factors also affect the value of drinking alcohol (e.g., Dantzer et al., 2006). After the pair of images is removed from the screen, a probe stimulus such as a dot, arrow, or asterisk appears in the location occupied previously by one or the other of the stimulus pictures. Trial errors: When a participant responds to a trial (stimulus presentation) incorrectly (e.g., responding “blue” when the trial requires the response of “red”). James, L. (2017). (2014). Attentional biases in the horizontal and vertical dimensions share many features in common. Attention training to reduce attention bias and social stressor reactivity: An attempt to replicate and extend previous findings. This is largely because ex-smokers have attentional bias for tobacco-related cues, which causes them to process these cues more deeply than a non-smoker would. Why are some incentives but not others transformed into goals? Reaction time: The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the response of the participant. Therefore, investigating mechanisms that … Societies differ widely in how they view drinking alcohol and the extent to which they condone or prohibit it; thus, people living in a particular society will be overtly or subtly reinforced for drinking in the same manner as other people living in that society. Thus the segment of the stimulus that fell in the upper/left quadrant received an especially large amount of attention compared to the segment that fell in the lower right segment. The stability of implicit racial bias in police officers. Intrinsic connectivity: A whole-brain approach to measuring functional (statistical) connectivity between brain regions during a given task. In our culture, Black people, particularly young men, are frequently and erroneously depicted as dangerous criminals. Post-stroke depression increases the likelihood of adverse physical symptoms. For example, when panic attacks are pharmacologically promoted in panic patients (e.g., through lactate infusion or CO2 inhalation), panic is unlikely if patients are informed about the expected effects of the manipulation. This is when people ignore things on which they’re not focused. A broad range of experimental tasks (described below) have repeatedly demonstrated attentional bias at each stage of processing; however, the mediating mechanism(s) underpinning each component remains a source of controversy. The construct current concern is presumed to refer to latent goal-related brain processes, and recent neuroscientific research has identified clues about how these processes are represented in the brain (Berkman and Lieberman, 2009; Klinger and Cox, 2011; Kouneiher et al., 2009). De Angelis J., Ricciardelli P. (2017) Emotional Stroop Task. As mentioned above, we have a finite capacity for attention; as much as we try to convince ourselves otherwise, we can really only focus on a small number of things at a time. Attentional bias carries implications for many institutions. reading drug-related words might elicit disruptive anxiety or might activate drug-related memories that distract one from the color-naming task). As an example, your schema for your friend Julie might include information such as “tall,” “plays hockey,” and “hates spicy food.”. Begh, R., Munafò, M. R., Shiffman, S., Ferguson, S. G., Nichols, L., Mohammed, M. A., Holder, R. L., Sutton, S., & Aveyard, P. (2013). For example, one person might selectively attend to stimuli related to food (particularly food that is perceived to be particularly delicious). Introduction. During this period, the goal striving is reflected in the person cognitive processes (e.g., his or her thoughts, memories, attention, and even dreams). Our attention is a finite resource; focusing on one thing comes at the expense of others. Often, the influence of this type of bias on our thinking is at such a deep, automatic level that we are not aware it is happening. Stroop: A cognitive task designed to test attention and inhibition by presenting individuals with trials during which they have to name the ink color of a color-word which may or may not match. Notable among these is each person's personality characteristics (e.g., see Vrieze et al., 2014) and the degree to which they are feeling stressed because of frustrations in other areas of their lives (Demirbas et al., 2012). In the 1960s, Aaron Beck had proposed a cognitive model of affective disorders that focused upon the negative content of thoughts, in contrast to the then-dominant behaviorist model that saw emotional problems as a set of learned responses to stressful or threatening situations. However, it is also abundantly clear that cognition drives anxiety. Harold Rosenberg, in Principles of Addiction, 2013. Avoid resits and get better grades with material written specifically for your studies. AB assessment captures the implicit (or unconscious) processing of salient cues, which is thought to reflect the incentive salience of drug-paired cues. A region in the brain’s frontal lobe that is thought to be a core component of the human reward system. “hatred”).15 Slower reaction times were interpreted to mean that deeper processing of a given word was taking place, suggesting a possible attentional bias. Often—if not always—the attentional bias is motivationally relevant, i.e., it is related to the person's goal-directed behavior. Attentional bias in anxiety: A behavioral and ERP study 1. Following treatment, many depressed patients have significant residual symptoms. Shoot or don’t shoot? The aims of attentional bias modification is to reduce anxiety by attenuating bias towards threatening information. Faced with a massive amount of incoming information every second, our brains are constantly trying to figure out what is most worthy of our concentration. if(wpruag()){document.write("