In addition, a microscope can have a third viewing tube which allows a still or video camera to be attached for "through the microscope" photography or videography. It is a good idea to start out with a low power when first examining a portion of a document and then to zoom in closer to the area you want to inspect. The paper fiber disturbances are targeted by the instrument. Most handwriting examination is done at powers of 10X to 50X (the subject is enlarged 10 to 50 times). A quill pen is a writing instrument made from flight feathers of large birds. Below are 6 reasonably common items photographed at varying powers. Basic measuring tools include metric rulers, calipers for fine measurements and various glass alignment plates such as the one illustrated below which allow comparison and measurement of angles, height, width and spacing of handwriting and typewriting. 2. For more information and a demonstration of this equipment, take a tour of my document examination laboratory. Many examinations involve a comparison between questioned documents and genuine documents, referred to as reference standards. In the third through sixth images the heavy inking that was used to obscure the original writing is gradually "removed" to reveal the "2". Handheld magnifiers (sold here by QDEWill) enlarge the material from 2 to 10 times (magnification powers of 2X to 10X) and may have lighting abilities as well to brighten the field of view. Two documents can be viewed side-by-side and the images can be positioned so that they appear to overlay each other. The most important tool a document examiner has is his or her own vision, but in this section and the laboratory tour section we will consider the external tools which enable the examiner to see, evaluate and record more than is apparent to the unaided eye. Questioned document examiners define a ‘questioned document’ as any piece of evidence that bears symbols, marks or signs meant for a communication. Another instrument of value in resolving cases is an instrument designed to recover indented writing. by E. Lawrence Bickford, O.D. A type of microscope that is particularly useful in document examination is the comparison microscope. Green, Forensic Document Examiner. Ink dating is not a testing process common to most document examiners, particularly in private laboratories. THE USE OF DOCUMENTS IN EXAMINATION-IN-CHIEF. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The Optics, Refraction, and Instruments exam is frequently taken early in residency training. Instruments used specially in Ophthalmology are as follows:  __Forcetoc__ Instrument list ... Loupe used ot search for magnified examination of the anterior segment of the eye (uniocular or binocular) Jackson's cross cylinder used to check the power and axis of a cylindrical lens The Optics, Refraction, and Instruments Examination takes one-and-a-half hours. Forensic Document Examination or Questioned Document Examination involves the scientific examination of suspicious documents. For example, a simple loupe (magnifier), is often used to enlarge fine details in writing or printed text. A forensic document examiner relies on a range of scientific instruments and specialized forensic equipment (from basic to advanced) to aid in these examinations. To see details more closely, there are many types of microscopes. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of forensic document examination. Principles of Forensic Document Examination Forensic#document#examiners#often#deal#withquestions#of#document# authenticity.#Todetermine#whether#adocument#is#genuine,#anexaminer# may#attempt#to#confirmwho#created#the#document,#determine#the# timeframe#in#which#itwas#created,#identify#the#materials#used… When magnification is higher, the field of vision is so narrow that the object viewed loses relevance. The speculum is a stainless steel or plastic device that resembles a … Just as the examiner once had to divert from the study of handwriting to learn about a new machine, the typewriter, now he must learn about the computer and the output devices that are associated with it. Handheld magnifiers (sold here by QDEWill) enlarge the material from 2 to 10 times (magnification powers of 2X to 10X) and may have lighting abilities as well to brighten the field of view. The Anatomy and Function of the Retina. The chemical analysis for ink dating is a very specialized field. he is a member. … The examiner must be able to state and explain his or her opinion, but the best service is given when the examiner goes the final step of illustrating testimony with visual evidence. A Questioned Document can be A sophisticated instrument using infrared filters and ultraviolet light is used by forensic document examiners for such examinations. The interplay of colored light makes this image a bit confusing to the first time viewer, but essentially you are seeing a composite of two signatures (one viewed through a red filter and one viewed through a green filter) in which the black line segments are the places where the two signatures would coincide if the signatures were really on top of each other. If ink dating would be of benefit to a case, a document examiner will refer the client to an ink chemist. Instrument: Cotton Rolls Function: To isolate teeth and absorb saliva Act as a protective tissue barrier; aid in endodontic diagnostics Characteristics: Fluid absorbent roll ~ 1 in long Instrument: 2 x 2 gauze Function: Absorbent cloth, aid in homeostasis, clean instruments, used in all aspects of dentistry By using a different color of filter on each document, the examiner can then see a third color in those areas where the two segments being compared overlap each other. principal statutory provision relating to cross-examination on documents was s.55 of the Evidence Act 1898 (NSW) which complemented s.54 of the same Act, which was limited to oral statements. This is best provided by a light box which has a color corrected flourescent type light bulb. Simultaneously, documents have evolved with advances in writing instruments, stamping devices, and the rise and availability of digital printing techniques. But in document examination there is a lot more to do with a computer. Photo equipment is likely to include a 35mm SLR camera, digital camera, copy stand, filters, extension tubes, lenses, and other items.
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